Coral Reefs as a Marker of Environmental Change

Coral Reefs as a Marker of Environmental Change

Coral is highly sensitive to its external environment. Changes in ocean temperature, pollution and run-off,  and pH (ocean acidification) can cause them to 'bleach' (1). When bleached, they can survive if optimal conditions return. However, if the stress is sustained, they will eventually die. As such, coral reefs are deeply threatened by environmental change and therefore make a good marker for the health of ocean ecosystems.

 

What is coral bleaching?

Coral live in a symbiotic relationship with microscopic, photosynthetic, algae called zooxanthellae (2). Like plants, the zooxanthellae capture sunlight and convert it into energy, providing essential nutrients to the coral (3). In return, the coral provides a protected environment for the zooxanthellae to live. Aside from providing nutrients, the zooxanthellae are also responsible for the colouring of many stony corals.

Under conditions of stress caused by changes in ocean temperature, agricultural run-off, and ocean acidification, resulting from human activities releasing COinto the atmosphere, the coral polyps expel their zooxanthellae, causing them to take on a white appearance, what is known as "coral bleaching" (4). The coral will not die instantly when the zooxanthellae is expelled, but if the period of stress is sustained, the zooxanthellae will be unable to re-enter the coral tissue, the coral will not get the essential nutrients it needs to survive.

What is left is the corals calcium carbonate skeleton. Algae begins to grow over the coral skeletons, blocking any chance of regrowth. After time, the skeletons will erode, resulting in the collapse of the reef structure. This collapse is not just an eyesore, it has catastrophic impacts for the ocean ecosystem, fisheries and local communities that depend on the reef for an income.

 

Why is it Important That we Protect Coral Reefs?

Habitat - Coral skeletons are an important component of the reef architecture and provide a habitat for 25% of all marine species (5). They provide shelter, spawning grounds and protection from predators. In their absence, fish stocks will decline, this has a knock-on effect to local communities who are reliant on fish for their main source of protein.

Tourism and Recreation - For coastal communities that are reliant on tourism for their income, the health of coral reefs is paramount to their survival. Ecotourism provides thousands of jobs and millions of dollars in income. It has been estimated that coral reefs have a global economic value of $36 billion per year (6).

Coastline Protection  - Coral reefs absorb 97% of a waves energy (7), acting as a buffer against storm events, such as hurricanes and tsunamis, to 150,000 km of global tropical coastlines in over 100 countries (8).

Pharmaceuticals - Due to the stationary nature of coral, it has developed a plethora of chemical defences in order to gain protection from predators and to fight disease. Coral is therefore becoming increasingly recognised as an important source of new drugs to treat diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's and arthritis.

 

What Can we do to Help?

Although small changes at home will make a difference (e.g. buying organic food as to not contribute to the use of pesticides and herbicides), the real issue here is climate change which requires global cooperation and action to reduce emissions and slow global warming. The death of coral reefs is not just a great loss to the ocean but it will greatly impact millions of people, in over 100 countries, who rely on the reefs for their income and as a food source.

 

References:

  1. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/328/5985/1523
  2. https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/tutorial_corals/coral02_zooxanthellae.html#:~:text=Coral%20polyps%2C%20which%20are%20animals,water%20to%20carry%20out%20photosynthesis
  3. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs003380050249
  4. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1312064
  5. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160404152918.htm
  6. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17300635
  7. https://coast.noaa.gov/states/fast-facts/coral-reefs.html
  8. https://oceanwealth.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Atlas_of_Ocean_Wealth.pdf

599 comments

  • sdfvsebt

    https://skrwbh9828.expandcart.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=373
    https://kezwst4807.expandcart.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=373
    https://skrwbh9828.expandcart.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=374
    https://ocprwp5014.expandcart.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=373
    https://github.com/lixazoxepez12
    https://github.com/phim-mai-2024-vietsub
    https://www.taskade.com/p/xem-phim-mai-2024-vietsub-thuyet-minh-01HQQ4BGE1GDK1VCSS6G5D2CPX
    https://www.taskade.com/p/phim-mai-2024-full-hd-vietsub-ultra-hd-4-k-01HQQ6N5BA4ER30B2QFNHEKV06
    https://open.firstory.me/user/clt5fcqus10h501zfg9p090gj
    https://open.firstory.me/story/clt5fi0xg10hf01zf1mgy26us
    https://forum.webnovel.com/d/167333-xem-mai-2024-phim-full-hd-vietsub-online
    https://mpobcw4327.expandcart.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=373
    https://forum.webnovel.com/d/167334-phim-online-mai-2024-vietsub-bo-phim-day-du-mien-phi
    https://demo.hedgedoc.org/s/hSJ5JE1E3
    https://paiza.io/projects/PLtU-Sk7_2nLB1W6oV0Mxg
    https://pastelink.net/mwci64mz
    https://hackmd.io/@rerewilli6/r13y1Dh3T
    https://snippet.host/camsxd
    https://tempaste.com/zmDTPO8G7ET
    https://rentry.co/yef3abi2
    https://binshare.net/N22T1IopMHkCG8oCiPL6
    https://rift.curseforge.com/paste/2c2c92e5
    https://telegra.ph/Xem-phim-Mai-2024-online-thuy%E1%BA%BFt-minh-mi%E1%BB%85n-ch%E1%BA%A5t-l%C6%B0%E1%BB%A3ng-t%E1%BB%91t-Full-HD-02-28
    https://pastebin.com/SR44GVMs
    https://aderayong.hashnode.dev/xem-mai-2024-phien-ban-day-du
    https://app.convertkit.com/editor/templates/2642010
    https://namelessmc.com/forum/topic/6794-hd-phim-mai-full-4k-vi%E1%BB%87t-nam-/
    https://www.onfeetnation.com/profiles/blogs/xem-hd-mai-2024-phim-vi-t-nam-tr-c-tuy-n-mi-n-ph

  • cheps

    https://pastelink.net/qcw5toch
    https://pastelink.net/k7chu0js
    https://pastelink.net/e06eh5rr
    https://pastelink.net/9umdqznb
    https://pastelink.net/gca7y4sr
    https://pastelink.net/c4l2kuq2
    https://pastelink.net/l2my2vb8
    https://pastelink.net/t0o1kd65
    https://pastelink.net/79qw7liy
    https://pastelink.net/vqvx5zrn
    https://pastelink.net/hulzer89
    https://pastelink.net/53thnh9l
    https://pastelink.net/1qqsgfgx
    https://pastelink.net/a0xqpf3o
    https://pastelink.net/1khwntaa
    https://github.com/orgs/edzkh/discussions/34
    https://github.com/orgs/edzkh/discussions/35
    https://github.com/orgs/edzkh/discussions/36
    https://github.com/orgs/edzkh/discussions/37
    https://github.com/orgs/edzkh/discussions/38
    https://github.com/orgs/edzkh/discussions/39
    https://github.com/orgs/edzkh/discussions/40

  • Mei: The Cursed

    https://www.lakewoodpta.org/group/parent-teacher-association/discussion/3b30051f-6106-4ff5-ae72-c16bc3df92f1
    https://www.lakewoodpta.org/group/parent-teacher-association/discussion/683f653c-5232-4b93-a191-bbdca649eb29
    https://www.lakewoodpta.org/group/parent-teacher-association/discussion/b4d272de-3495-477c-ba86-345f78ae3e89
    https://www.lakewoodpta.org/group/parent-teacher-association/discussion/1c99ddb8-72b3-485b-9daf-c60adb56844b
    https://www.lakewoodpta.org/group/parent-teacher-association/discussion/1927f17a-23e4-454f-bc7d-79e259e308b5
    https://www.lakewoodpta.org/group/parent-teacher-association/discussion/4e912fb6-6147-416c-a3ba-de64713871e2
    https://www.lakewoodpta.org/group/parent-teacher-association/discussion/ce4e8dcf-b105-499a-8324-d7c8bd37712e
    https://www.lakewoodpta.org/group/parent-teacher-association/discussion/089cbe69-9e04-42ea-ae65-68dba7cbc92f
    https://www.hkhoc.org/ii/group/the-hong-kong-hall-o-group/discussion/f6aa0aa0-6f48-46c0-be8e-da7f0e337c7c
    https://www.hkhoc.org/ii/group/the-hong-kong-hall-o-group/discussion/f40690f4-bb37-409f-a43d-e6c717274809
    https://www.hkhoc.org/ii/group/the-hong-kong-hall-o-group/discussion/c95736e8-390f-43d0-a01b-f45521e7fbe3
    https://www.hkhoc.org/ii/group/the-hong-kong-hall-o-group/discussion/823c2e6e-a600-458e-a484-66dd57d9e4e1
    https://www.hkhoc.org/ii/group/the-hong-kong-hall-o-group/discussion/8f58ea78-1bc2-48e1-806a-217433bda047
    https://www.hkhoc.org/ii/group/the-hong-kong-hall-o-group/discussion/7599a11e-fd1b-4f11-89b2-f5000eceb6f3
    https://www.hkhoc.org/ii/group/the-hong-kong-hall-o-group/discussion/454fa71b-4376-485a-b1bf-0a9a5c6be0b1
    https://www.lakewoodpta.org/group/parent-teacher-association/discussion/a565e86d-0137-4a92-9e83-3d6ea5bf7cf0
    https://www.hkhoc.org/ii/group/the-hong-kong-hall-o-group/discussion/4e175a45-2969-4c8f-b135-7426883ad5dc
    https://jsfiddle.net/u6njgxzo/

  • free web site

    https://slashpage.com/how-to-make-free-website
    https://slashpage.com/how-to-make-free-website/cn
    https://slashpage.com/how-to-make-free-website/es
    https://slashpage.com/how-to-make-free-website/fr
    https://slashpage.com/how-to-make-free-website/ja
    https://slashpage.com/how-to-make-free-website/ru
    https://slashpage.com/how-to-make-free-website/ko
    https://slashpage.com/how-to-make-free-website/id
    https://slashpage.com/how-to-make-free-website/hi
    https://slashpage.com/how-to-make-free-website/th
    https://output.jsbin.com/beluxukegi/
    https://glot.io/snippets/gszxz7ikfl

  • svdrsbdr

    https://zpzavi2771.expandcart.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=374
    https://axaeon3194.expandcart.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=374
    https://dplkcd3569.expandcart.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=373
    https://vvgftd2248.expandcart.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=373
    https://ziqjlu8566.expandcart.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=373
    https://dsxugy0121.expandcart.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=373
    https://gist.github.com/trewsefred/c16824916ac7addd45e70d00ce55fb03
    https://gist.github.com/sdfasese/c44627841d7fdad0d10e111896f0b185
    https://slashpage.com/argylle-fhd-thaisub
    https://slashpage.com/argylle-2024-hd-thaisub
    https://slashpage.com/blue-giant-2024-hd-thai1080p
    https://slashpage.com/blue-giant-2024
    https://slashpage.com/mei-the-cursed-2024-hd-thai4k
    https://slashpage.com/mei-the-cursed-fhd-4k-1080p
    https://slashpage.com/teeyodfhd1080i
    https://app.eventcaddy.com/events/2024-argylle-hd
    https://app.eventcaddy.com/events/sub-thai-2024
    https://app.eventcaddy.com/events/blue-giant
    https://app.eventcaddy.com/events/2024-mei-the-cursed-fhd-1080i
    https://app.eventcaddy.com/events/hd-21
    https://app.eventcaddy.com/events/hd-tee-yod-hd-1080p-6
    https://www.taskade.com/p/argylle-2024-1080-p-01HN4Y8926QNNE753JXX5WBTMX
    https://www.taskade.com/p/hd-blue-giant-hd-1080p-01HN522V4BDCTGTTBFP6ZTDVTY
    https://www.taskade.com/p/hd-mei-the-cursed-hd-1080p-01HN74AN3CFTRDDCXHFK4S1P0J
    https://www.taskade.com/p/tee-yod-2023-hd-1080p-01HN7FKN285P4GVEAYN3JZ0DDX
    https://vk.com/movpcinemark-2024-mei-the-cursed-hd-1080p https://vk.com/twblurray-teeyod-hd-2023-thai
    https://fueler.io/filmhdthai/tee-yod-2023-fhd1080p-4k
    https://fueler.io/fhdteeyod/full-hd-tee-yod-1080p
    https://forums.selfhostedserver.com/topic/27964/kakekgacorr


Leave a comment